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The Industrial Revolution began in the United Kingdom in the 18th century with the discovery of steam power. This revolution resulted in a wide range of technological advancements, particularly in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, metallurgy, transportation, and the widespread use of the factory system[61]. A century later, the Second Industrial Revolution resulted in rapid scientific advancement, standardization, and mass production.

Electricity, sewage systems, light bulbs, electric motors, railroads, automobiles, and airplanes are examples of new technologies that were developed.These technological advancements resulted in significant advancements in engineering, chemistry, medicine, and physics.[62] They were accompanied by social change as well, with skyscrapers being built and rapid urbanization occurring simultaneously.[63] The telegraph, telephone, radio, and television all improved communication.[64] The 20th century brought a slew of innovations.In physics, the Atomic Age’s discovery of nuclear fission led to the development of nuclear power and weapons.The Digital Revolution saw the transition from analog to digital computers after their invention.

The advent of the Internet, which marked the beginning of the Information Age, was made possible by information technology, particularly optical fiber and optical amplifiers.The 1957 launch of Sputnik 1 marked the beginning of the Space Age, which was followed in the 1960s by the first crewed missions to the moon.Radio telescopes have been used by organized efforts to find extraterrestrial intelligence to find technosignatures—signs that alien civilizations have used technology.New medical technologies were created for research, diagnosis (such as CT, PET, and MRI scanning), treatment (such as the dialysis machine, defibrillator, pacemaker, and a wide range of new pharmaceutical drugs), and diagnosis (such as interferon cloning and DNA microarrays)[65].

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