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The Neolithic Revolution, also known as the First Agricultural Revolution, saw an acceleration in technological innovation and, as a result, an increase in social complexity.[33] The invention of the polished stone axe was a significant advance that made it possible to farm and clear large areas of forest on a large scale.

[34] This use of polished stone axes increased significantly during the Neolithic period, but it was first used in some areas, such as Ireland, during the Mesolithic period.[35] AgricultureIn addition, children were able to participate in agricultural activities more readily than hunters and gatherers.

[36][37] As a result of an increase in population and the availability of labor, labor specialization increased.[38] It is unclear exactly what sparked the transition from early Neolithic villages to the first cities, like Uruk, and the first civilizations, like Sumer.However, it is thought that the need for collective action to overcome environmental challenges like irrigation and the emergence of increasingly hierarchical social structures and specialized labor, as well as trade and war between adjacent cultures, all played a role.[39]

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