Neolithic through Classical Antiquity (10,000 B.C.E. – 300 C.E.)
The Neolithic period, also known as the “New Stone Age,” is when man’s technological ascent began in earnest.Polished stone axes were a significant development because they made it possible to extensively clear forests in order to construct farms.
Because young children no longer needed to be carried as was the case with the nomadic lifestyle, the transition to a sedentary way of life increased the number of children that could be raised simultaneously. The discovery of agriculture also made it possible to feed larger populations.In addition, children were able to contribute labor to the cultivation of crops more readily than hunters and gatherers could.
 As a result of this increase in population and the availability of labor, labor specialization increased. It is unclear exactly what sparked the transition from early Neolithic villages to the first cities, such as Uruk, and the first civilizations, such as Sumer;However, it is thought that the need for collective action to overcome environmental challenges, such as the construction of dikes and reservoirs, the emergence of increasingly hierarchical social structures, the specialization of labor, trade, and war among adjacent cultures, and